Articles Providing for the Favorable Treatment of the Great Ching Emperor after His Abdication

(1912)

On February 12, 1912, Empress Dowager Longyu, acting on behalf of the five-year-old emperor of China, Puyi, announced the Articles Providing for the Favorable Treatment of the Great Ching Emperor after His Abdication (titled Youdai Tiaojian in Chinese). This document detailed what would happen to the emperor and his household when he renounced his power over the people of China. Along with other edicts she announced from the Forbidden City in Beijing, the Articles Providing for the Favorable Treatment of the Great Ching Emperor after His Abdication signaled the end of the monarchy's rule in China and the beginnings of a republic.

The abdication of the emperor came after years of uprisings against the ruling Manchu under the Qing (spelled “Ching” in the document) Dynasty (1644–1911). Always seen as outsiders to the predominantly ethnic Han majority, the Manchus had been the focus of anti-imperial protests and uprisings, the largest being the Taiping Rebellion, lasting from...

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Three-year-old Puyi, emperor of China, with his father and younger brother (Library of Congress)

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