Constitution of India

(1949)

The Constitution of India is the fundamental and supreme law that provides the framework for all of the individual laws of the country. The constitution was adopted by the Constituent Assembly of India on November 26, 1949, and came into effect on January 26, 1950, marking the twentieth anniversary of Purna Swaraj (complete self-rule) as adopted by the Indian National Congress (the dominant political party) in Lahore in 1930. The day is celebrated as Republic Day in India. An embodiment of the ideals and aspirations of the people of the nation, the Constitution of India is continuously growing, responding to the needs and requirements of a changing society. In the excerpted document presented here, the bracketed portions are changes in the constitution that have been enacted in intervening years; the unbracketed portions represent the original 1949 text. Most of the changes are relatively minor and intended to clarify or amplify language from the original constitution or to...