Martin Delany: The Condition, Elevation, ... and Destiny of the Colored People of the United States(1852)
Martin Robison Delany’s famous 1852 work The Condition, Elevation, Emigration, and Destiny of the Colored People of the United States, Politically Considered is an early black nationalist manifesto. Delany was a significant early founder of the philosophy of black nationalism, and over the course of his life he contributed in a variety of ways to the black freedom struggle. He developed a number of practical strategies, including education, to promote black independence, self-determination, and self-sufficiency. To this end, he also strongly supported African emigration. Delany stands at the head of a succession of black leaders known for their staunch advocacy of black nationalism, including Henry McNeal Turner, Marcus Garvey, Malcolm X, and Louis Farrakhan. In his influential work, Delany offers a close examination of the merits of black emigration as a means of elevation to freedom and equality.
Cover of a pamphlet on Liberia, showing the Liberian flag (Library of Congress)View Full Size