Executive Order 9981: Desegregation of the Armed Forces


Please purchase for access to the document text and analysis

About the Author

Harry S. Truman, the thirty-third president of the United States (1945–1953), was born in Lamar, Missouri, on May 8, 1884. While it has become conventional to regard “S” as a middle initial, with a period, in fact the S does not stand for anything. It was his middle name, given to him by his parents to honor both of his grandfathers, whose names began with the letter S—a practice not uncommon among people of Scots-Irish descent.

Early in his life, Truman worked as a drugstore...