Mandate of Heaven

(ca. 475–221 BCE)

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The Zhou Dynasty (ca. 1045–256 BCE) is divided in two periods: the Western Zhou (ca. 1045–771 BCE), the era in which the concept of the Mandate of Heaven was formulated, and the Eastern Zhou (770–256 BCE). The historian and scribe Sima Qian (ca. 145–87 BCE) wrote in his classic history the Shi ji (Records of the Grand Historian) that the Zhou Dynasty came to free the suffering people from Shang tyrants. King Zhou (also known as King Wen) was a model of virtue. He provoked the envy of...