Pope Boniface VIII: Clericis Laicos and Unam Sanctam

(1296 and 1302)

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Examples of official letters, known as bulls, issued by a pope, Boniface VIII's Clericis laicos and Unam sanctam illustrate the conflicting claims of power between the pope and kings of emerging European nation-states, especially France and England, at the end of the thirteenth century. Pope Boniface VIII, King Philip IV (also known as Philip the Fair) of France, and King Edward I of England were among the figures involved.

Official papal letters such as Boniface VIII's Clericis laicos and...