Pope Boniface VIII: Clericis Laicos and Unam Sanctam

(1296 and 1302)

Examples of official letters, known as bulls, issued by a pope, Boniface VIII's Clericis laicos and Unam sanctam illustrate the conflicting claims of power between the pope and kings of emerging European nation-states, especially France and England, at the end of the thirteenth century. Pope Boniface VIII, King Philip IV (also known as Philip the Fair) of France, and King Edward I of England were among the figures involved.

Official papal letters such as Boniface VIII's Clericis laicos and Unam sanctam are called “bulls” because they are sealed with what is known in Latin as bulla...