Diplomatic Correspondence between Muhammad al-Kanami and Muhammad Bello


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The diplomatic correspondence between Muhammad Bello of Sokoto and Shehu al-Hajj Muhammad al-Amin ibn Muhammad al-Kanami of Kanem-Borno,  two Muslim leaders of nineteenth-century West Africa, was a result of conflict between their two nations. Bello was ruler of the Sokoto Caliphate, a newly created Islamic empire in what is now northern Nigeria, and al-Kanami was an adviser to the ruling class of Kanem-Borno, an ancient Islamic empire formed around Lake Chad. Bello felt that Sokoto was...