Han Feizi

(ca. 230 BCE)

About the Author

As a descendant of the royal Han family that ruled over the state by the same name, Han Fei (ca. 280–233 BCE) not only held a keen interest in the political developments of his time but also had a personal stake in the outcome. He allegedly stuttered, which placed him at a serious disadvantage against his more eloquent rivals. Turning to writing to communicate his ideas, Han Fei composed a series of memorials to his relatives advising them on how to strengthen the Han state, with the ultimate goal of conquering their neighbors, who were for the most part larger and...