Niagara Movement Declaration of Principles

(1905)

The Niagara Movement Declaration of Principles outlined a philosophy and political program designed to address racial inequality in the United States. The document had its origin on July 11, 1905, when twenty-nine African American men began deliberations at the Erie Beach Hotel in Fort Erie, Ontario, just across the border from Buffalo and Niagara, New York. When they adjourned three days later, the Niagara Movement had been born. The Niagara Movement had a limited impact on race relations in the United States. Within five years it would cease to exist, and in the history of the struggle for equal rights it has long been overshadowed by the more successful, long-lived, biracial National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). Nevertheless, the Niagara Movement was an important landmark in U.S. and African American history.

Several factors distinguish the movement. First, it was a purely African American effort to address discrimination and racial...

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W. E. B. Du Bois (Library of Congress)

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