Pirke Avot

(ca. 200)

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Pirke Avot, or “The Sayings of the Fathers,” is one of the sixty-three tractates of the Mishnah, the oldest document of classical Jewish (rabbinic) literature, which was composed at the beginning of the third century CE. Apart from its inclusion in the Mishnah, Pirke Avot circulated independently. It is also included in the Talmud, a central text of Judaism composed of rabbinic discussions on Jewish law and ethics. The period from ca. 70 CE until ca. 700 CE is called the Rabbinic Period in...