Shulchan Arukh

(ca. 1570)


Jews in the Middle Ages (ca. 500–1450) found themselves for the first time in competition with other monotheistic religions. Both Islam and Christianity claim to have roots in Judaism but to have superseded Judaism with subsequent revelations and prophets. This led to times of great oppression for Jews. With the endorsement of Christianity by the emperor Constantine I as a legal religion in 313 CE, it quickly became the favored religion of the Roman Empire. Jews were heavily persecuted by the Romans, and Jewish communities were controlled by severe restrictions that...

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Jewish man preparing for prayer (Library of Congress)

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