Simón Bolívar: Cartagena Manifesto


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The Cartagena Manifesto, written on December 15, 1812, by Simón Bolívar, was a key document in the Spanish American wars of independence that took place in Mexico and South America from 1808 to 1829. Bolívar, who was to become one of the chief liberators of the nations of South America from Spanish rule, was Venezuelan, but after the collapse of his nation’s First Republic, formed at the beginning of the Venezuelan War of Independence (1811–1823), he departed to live in exile in modern-day...