Tirumular: “Atbudha Dance”

(ca. 400–700)


  • Adharas the chakras
  • Ajna the chakra at the forehead
  • Asi-Pada “You Are That (Supreme)”
  • Bhootas the five principles or elements of the universe
  • Bodha knowing, spiritual knowledge, teaching
  • Chittambara city in Tamil Nadu known for its holy temple to Shiva Nataraja
  • Crore ten million
  • Ganas Shiva’s demigod attendants
  • Hara a name for Shiva
  • Iccha will or desire
  • Jiva the immortal essence or soul of a living being
  • Jnana knowledge or wisdom
  • Kriya action
  • Kundalini a form of psycho-spiritual energy, the energy of the consciousness (which moves up the spine in spiritual awakening)
  • Lingas representations of Shiva
  • Lord of Nadanta Shiva as the Transcendental Lord beyond creation
  • Mamaya purity of the world
  • Maya impurity of the world
  • Mohanta the end of the illusion of the world as the source of true fulfillment
  • Muladhara the chakra at the base of the spine
  • Nada sound
  • Pandaranga “white-limbed,” an epithet for Shiva representing destruction, as Rudra, smeared with white ash
  • Para-Para “beyond,” “supreme”
  • Para...
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Shiva Nataraja (Yale University Art Gallery)

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