Treaty of Westphalia


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The Treaty of Westphalia was actually a pair of treaties negotiated in the Westphalian towns of Münster and Osnabrück and concluded on October 24, 1648, ending the Thirty Years' War (1618–1648). The Thirty Years' War, a period of violence and destruction unmatched in Europe until the twentieth century, had brought about a perspectival change in the way states dealt with one another. The medieval notion of universality, whereby rulers acted in the best interests of the church, had given...