(ca. 700? BCE–300 CE)


Around the time that the Chandogya Upanishad was composed, the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad was also written. These two bodies of literature would form the basis for the Vedanta ideology and serve as links between the Vedic Age and the reforms to come. The initial impact of the Upanishads was not earth shattering, as there were contemporary movements that were also trying to reform Hinduism. Some modern scholars have even suggested that the Upanishads were ineffective in their own age, as they failed to eradicate or change the caste system and did not efficiently alter the moral...

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The god Indra with Krishna (Yale University Art Gallery)

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