Western Civilization II 1500 - present: The Milestone Reader in Western Civilization

Editor in Chief: Eric Cunningham, Gonzaga University

Student Price: $19.95 per semester
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From critical documents of the emerging Western world to the important voices of today’s “global” era, our digital reader is the most flexible and powerful textbook alternative in the industry. The standard version of the reader includes more than 125 sources, from key speeches and letters to treaties, legislative acts, religious texts, and more. Plus, you can customize the reader with any number of other sources from our collection, in addition to adding external sources and website links as well. Create your review account today to browse our full collection and begin tailoring your own reader. It’s your class. Teach it your way.


New for Spring 2018

  • Milestone Documents readers are now available on VitalSource Bookshelf, the leading platform for digital course materials in higher education. Our VitalSource e-books offer offline reading, instructor annotations, industry-leading accessibility features, and full integration with your Learning Management System. Learn more.
  • Quiz bank available directly from Milestone Documents or via the Respondus Quiz Bank Network (for import into your Learning Management System). Learn more. 

Table of Contents

125 sources across 15 units in the standard version, each with a corresponding quiz (see below)

175 additional sources available for your customization

Corresponding textbook articles aligned to standard version units

Instructor Resources for each standard unit, including:

  • Unit Objectives
  • Key Arguments
  • Key Concepts
  • Key Terms
  • Map Exercises
  • Short-answer Questions
  • Unit Essays


Unit 1: The Emergence of the Modern West

Pope Boniface VIII: Clericis Laicos and Unam Sanctam (1296 and 1302)
Giovanni Boccaccio: The Decameron (ca. 1350–1353)
Jean Froissart: The Chronicles of Froissart (ca. 1357–1400)
Giovanni Pico della Mirandola: Oration on the Dignity of Man (1486)
Desiderius Erasmus: The Praise of Folly (1509)
Martin Luther: Ninety-five Theses (1517)
John Calvin: Institutes of the Christian Religion (1536)
Saint Ignatius of Loyola: The Spiritual Exercises (1548)
Canons and Decrees of the Council of Trent (1564)


Unit 2: The Growth of Western Civilization

Surrender Treaty of the Kingdom of Granada (1491)
Christopher Columbus: Letter to Raphael Sanxis on the Discovery of America (1493)
A Journal of the First Voyage of Vasco da Gama (1497–1498)
Requerimiento (1513)
Niccolò Machiavelli: The Prince (1513)
Dutch Declaration of Independence (1581)
James I: Speech on the Divine Right of Kings (1609)
Charter of the Dutch West India Company (1621)


Unit 3: From Scientific Revolution to Enlightenment

Henricus Institoris and Jacobus Sprenger: Malleus maleficarum (1486)
Paracelsus: Concerning the Nature of Things (1537)
Nicolaus Copernicus: On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres (1543)
Fama Fraternitatis (ca. 1610)
Galileo Galilei: Starry Messenger (1610)
Letter of Cardinal Bellarmine to Paolo Antonio Foscarini concerning Galileo’s Theories (1615)
René Descartes: Discourse on the Method of Rightly Conducting the Reason (ca. 1637)
Great Muscovite Law Code (1649)


Unit 4: The Enlightenment

John Locke: Second Treatise on Civil Government (1690)
Voltaire: Candide (1759)
Jean-Jacques Rousseau: The Social Contract (1762)
Denis Diderot: Supplement to the Voyage of Bougainville (1772)
Declaration of Independence (1776)
Immanuel Kant: “What Is Enlightenment?” (1784)
Marquis de Condorcet: Outlines of an Historical View of the Progress of the Human Mind (1795)


Unit 5: An Age of Revolution

Thomas Paine: Common Sense (1776)
Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyès: What Is the Third Estate? (1789)
Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen (1789)
Olympe de Gouges: Declaration of the Rights of Woman and of the Female Citizen (1791)
Napoleonic Code (1804)
Imperial Catechism (1806)


Unit 6: The Triumph of Bourgeois Consciousness

Edmund Burke: Reflections on the Revolution in France (1790)
Johann Gottlieb Fichte: Addresses to the German Nation (1808)
Holy Alliance (1815)
Percy Bysshe Shelley: “A Defense of Poetry” (1821)
Giuseppe Mazzini: General Instructions for the Members of Young Italy (1831)
Alexis de Tocqueville: Democracy in America (1835)
People’s Charter (1838)
John Stuart Mill: On Liberty (1859)
Pope Pius IX: Syllabus of Errors (1864)


Unit 7: Industrialization and Its After-effects

Adam Smith: The Wealth of Nations (1776)
Leeds Woolen Workers Petition (1786)
Louis Blanc: The Organization of Labor (1839)
Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels: Communist Manifesto (1848)
Michael Faraday: Letter to the Editor of the [London] Times (1856)
William Acton: Prostitution Considered in Its Moral, Social, and Sanitary Aspects (1857)


Unit 8: The Apex of Modern Civilization

Lin Zexu: “Moral Advice to Queen Victoria” (1839)
Henry David Thoreau: “On the Duty of Civil Disobedience” (1849)
Queen Victoria: Proclamation concerning India (1858)
Giuseppe Mazzini: An Essay on the Duties of Man: Addressed to Workingmen (1860)
Charles Darwin: The Descent of Man (1871)
Victor Emmanuel: Address to Parliament (1871)
Jane Addams: "The Subjective Necessity for Social Settlements" (1892)
Friedrich Nietzsche: The Will to Power (1901)


Unit 9: The Age of New Imperialism

Cecil Rhodes: Confession of Faith (1877)
Bernhard von Bülow on Germany's “Place in the Sun” (1897)
Joseph Conrad: Heart of Darkness (1899)
Rudyard Kipling: “The White Man's Burden” (1899)
Karl Pearson: National Life from the Standpoint of Science (1901)
Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine (1904)
George Orwell: Burmese Days (1934)


Unit 10: The Great War

Friedrich von Bernhardi: Germany and the Next War (1911)
Austro-Hungarian Ultimatum to Serbia and the Serbian Reply (1914)
Zimmermann Telegram (1917)
Woodrow Wilson: Fourteen Points (1918)
Treaty of Versailles (1919)
Wilfred Owen: Poems (1920)
Erich Maria Remarque: All Quiet on the Western Front (1928)


Unit 11: Totalitarianism

Vladimir Lenin: What Is to Be Done? (1902)
Rudolf Steiner: Theosophy (1904)
Adolf Hitler: Mein Kampf (1926)
José Ortega y Gasset: The Revolt of the Masses (1930)
Sigmund Freud: Civilization and Its Discontents (1930)
Benito Mussolini: “The Doctrine of Fascism” (1932)
Joseph Stalin: “Results of the First Five-year Plan” (1933)
Reinhard Heydrich: Memorandum concerning Kristallnacht (1938)


Unit 12: World War II

Adolf Hitler: Proclamation to the German People (1933)
Winston Churchill: “We Shall Fight on the Beaches” Speech (1940)
Franklin D. Roosevelt: "Pearl Harbor" Speech (1941)
Japan's Fourteen-part Message (1941)
Joseph Goebbels: “Nation, Rise Up, and Let the Storm Break Loose” (1943)


United Nations Charter (1945)
Potsdam Conference Protocols (1945)


Unit 13: The Cold War

Winston Churchill: Iron Curtain Speech (1946)
Harry S. Truman: Truman Doctrine (1947)
Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948)
Warsaw Security Pact (1955)
Nikita Khrushchev: Secret Speech (1956)
John Foster Dulles: Address on U.S. Policy toward Communist China (1957)
Helsinki Final Act (1975)


Unit 14: The West and the “Global” World

Benjamin R. Barber: “Jihad vs. McWorld” (1992)
Treaty on European Union (1992)
Osama bin Laden: Declaration of Jihad against Americans (1996)
Condoleezza Rice: "Transformational Diplomacy" (2006)
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change: Fourth Assessment Report on Climate Change (2007)
M. Jay Wells: “Why the Mortgage Crisis Happened” (2008)
Alexander Jung: “Ponzi Planet: The Danger Debt Poses to the Western World” (2012)


Unit 15: Postmodernism and the End of History

Alexander Solzhenitsyn: “A World Split Apart” (1978)
Jean-François Lyotard: The Postmodern Condition: A Report on Knowledge (1979)
Alasdair MacIntyre: After Virtue: A Study in Moral Theory (1981)
Fredric Jameson: Postmodernism; or, The Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism (1991)
Francis Fukuyama: The End of History and the Last Man (1992)